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Holmium (Ho) is a soft metal with a silvery-gray color, 67-th element of the periodic table. The atomic weight is about 165. It is a stable isotope of the rare earth series of lanthanide, very high-tech, easily machinable. Swiss naturalist Sora discovered a new element by analyzing the spectrum «arnieboy of the earth.» Later, Swedish chemist Cleve distilled holmium oxide and named it in honor of the ancient name of the Swedish capital Holmia. The content of this element in the earth’s crust of 1.3 g/t. most Often it occurs with other rare earth metals in Apatity. Industrially, this metal is produced by the reduction of fluorides calcium. In chemical compounds holmium has a valence of +3. Resistant to the action of fluoride. When heated, reacts easily with bromine, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen
|Physical quality But|
|Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||165|
|The degree of oxidation||3|
|The melting temperature t°C||1474°C|
|The heat of fusion kJ/mol||n/a|
|The thermal conductivity K [W/(m·K)]||16,2|
|Heat of evaporation kJ/mol||301|
Holmium refers to the rare earth non-ferrous metals. Such materials of new generation raised production processes to new levels and ensure prolonged reliable operation of modern equipment. Today, the holmium has gained importance in the production of thermoelectric materials, lasers, microelectronics, as an activator in phosphors. Nuclear energy is used Borat holmium. Crystals on the basis of holmium excited by infrared radiation with a wavelength of about 0.002 mm is used in the production of heat lasers. Holmium in the alloy with erbium is used to produce a directed magnetic fields, a part of the pole pieces of superconducting magnets. Radioactive 166th isotope used as a radioactive marker. Salt of holmium are part of optical glasses. Determination of oxides of holmium normalizes GOST 23862.3−79.
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