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Tin was known to the ancient Sumerians and the Chinese 6,000 years ago. But applied it only in alloys. The most famous of them is bronze. Tin is the 50th element of the periodic system. The atomic weight of 118.7; density — almost 5.9 g/cm3. It is fusible and resistant to corrosion, melts at 231,9°C, boils at 262 °C. the Technology of its extraction and production are very inexpensive. Tin is highly malleable and biologically inert. It is easily soldered, rolled into a thin sheet, cut, drilled, punched, bent. Usually re-used after recycling. The value of the metal depends on the purity.
Tin is a very soft and ductile metal. It does not withstand heavy loads, but essential in corrosion-resistant, safe material, the least toxic among non-ferrous metals. Tin enters into the composition of low-melting solders, antifriction alloys, pipelines, superconducting wires. The tin is made of tinplate for food storage. The most famous alloy of this metal is bronze.
Tin alloys have a low melting point, a small strength and hardness, but high ductility. Lagerbuchse copper, bismuth, zinc, lead and other elements. Tin with a number of metals forms a eutectic with a melting point lower than the original metals. Tin alloys are widely used for production of solders, antifriction alloys, foil.
In solders of tin also includes such low-melting metals such as lead, antimony, bismuth, etc. — in various proportions. The melting point of the solder to be lower than those mounted fragments. Cooling down, it gives a strong connection. Among the advantages of tin solders, it should be noted a small price. They are very practical to use plastic, giving high durability, soldering, distinguished corrosion resistance. Used to connect any non-ferrous alloys. The composition of tin-lead alloys, the proportion of lead may vary in the range of 1−95%. The most popular alloys contain lead 49−61% or 49−51%. Solders easily, moisten the surface of metals and solidification, to give a solid connection. They are used for soldering parts that are not exposed to impact loads and exposed to high temperatures.
In developed countries and CIS countries the most relevant tin and lead babbits. The production of tin alloys normalizes GOST 1320−74. Their composition may include up to 85% tin and (in total) up to 15% of antimony and copper. Babbits are used primarily in moving parts of diesel engines, as well as in the bearings of compressors and rolling mills. Today without of can’t do production equipment heavy machinery that runs at high speeds, dynamic loads, for example, electric locomotives and railway rolling stock.
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Tin alloys for centrifugal casting and casting under pressure, can contain up to 92% tin. Usually lagerbuchse antimony, copper and in some cases lead. Tin alloys with zinc are relevant in the nuclear industry, they differ in thermal stability (melting temperature = 2000°C), resistance to air oxidation when heated. Alloys with tantalum serving in the production of turbines. Alloys with niobium have a superconducting effect, used in a powerful magnetic generators. The very tin is an important alloying element for structural titanium alloys.
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