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Ytterbium (Yb) — light silver color is a soft metal, 70-th element of the periodic table. Atomic mass is about 173. It is a rare earth element of the yttrium group. Like other rare earth elements in the native form is not found, scattered in the earth’s crust to 0.33 g/t up To t° 792 °C it has cubic alpha-structure, and with a larger heat gains beta-centered structure. The contents in the earth’s crust 0.33 g/t ytterbium Most abundant of sedimentary minerals and granite pegmatites. Industrial methods of obtaining this metal is the restoration of the oxide Yb2О3 carbon or lanthanum in a vacuum, or by electrolysis of molten chloride YbCl3.
|Physical quality Yb|
|Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||173|
|The degree of oxidation||3, 2|
|The melting temperature t°C||824°C|
|The heat of fusion kJ/mol||3,25|
|The thermal conductivity K [W/(m·K)]||34,9|
|Heat of evaporation kJ/mol||159|
Today this element is used in electronics, nuclear physics, production of thermoelectric materials due to its unique technological and operational qualities. Using such materials of new generation have the opportunity to improve technological processes of modern production. In metallurgy the ytterbium alloyed special alloys. Ions of ytterbium to excite radiation in the infrared part of the spectrum with a wavelength of about 1 micron. The materials on the basis of ytterbium is used for the production of powerful optical and fiber lasers. Today, ytterbium is needed in the production of magnetic alloys. Borate ytterbium is used for manufacturing of protective coatings that are relevant in the nuclear industry. In electronics it is a valuable insulator. When the neutron irradiation ytterbium transformirovalsya in the hafnium isomer, which can also be used as the acceptor of energy, but these developments are not out of the theoretical stage. Ytterbium is a good getpagetitle in electro-vacuum devices. On the basis of the produced phosphors,
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