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Yttrium, the 39th element in the periodic system D. I. Mendeleev, where indicated as Y. It is a rare earth element in light gray refers to non-ferrous metals. The atomic weight of 88.9. Specific gravity of 4.47 g/cm3. At the end of the XVIII century, the yttrium oxide was the Finnish chemist Johann Gadolinum, which gave its name to the new element. In the ore rocks the metal adjacent to the lanthanides. Get yttrium from a mixture of rare-earth metals extractions and ion exchange methods. On the air surface of yttrium covered with a protective oxide film. At a temperature of about 400 °C the oxide film is black, and at 750 °C is destroyed. This metal is dissolved with acetic acid and mineral acids, when heated, is reacted with hydrogen, Halogens, sulphur, nitrogen and phosphorus. Types of rolled products: bars, sheet, wire.
In electrical engineering, this metal is widely in demand as thermoelectric. Telluride yttrium with high thermal stability and specific strength provides maximum thermo-EMF. 921 equal to µv/K among all the tellurides. It is used in the manufacture of heat generators with high efficiency. Oxide Y2O3 is used as a refractory at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Current for melting highly reactive metals, such as uranium or yttrium. Also yttrium is used for ceramic fittings, heating elements, when the alloying metals, and magnetic materials, electrodes for arc welding. A promising direction is nuclear technology, rocket science.
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