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Cerium (CE) — soft light grey, silvery metal of the 58th element of the periodic table. Atomic mass — about 140. It is a rare earth element from a number of lanthanides. Like other rare earth elements in the native form is not found, scattered in the earth’s crust up to 70 g/t was built in the late nineteenth century Swedish and German chemists independently from each other. This element was christened by the name of the largest asteroid — Ceres. Today, industrial way it is produced by electrolysis of molten fluorides of cerium.
This is one of the light rare earth metals, its density under normal conditions was 6.77 g/cm3. Melting point = 799 °C, t° boiling point 3426 °C. This metal exists in two modifications: hexagonal β-structure and cubic g-structure. The transition temperature of 393 °C. It refers to a number of chemically active elements. At room temperature in air it is oxidized, turning into amorphous oxide. Easily soluble in inorganic acids.
|Physical quality CE|
|Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||140|
|The degree of oxidation||3, 4|
|The melting temperature t°C||799°C|
|The thermal conductivity K [W/(m·K)]||11.1 V|
|The heat of fusion kJ/mol||5,2|
Glass production, manufacture of abrasive and thermoelectric materials, dentures. The cerium dioxide as the actual chemical catalyst. Thanks to special technology and performance, cerium is widely used in modern industry. Using such materials of new generation have the opportunity to improve technological processes of production and ensure more reliable operation of the whole complex of equipment. In metallurgical production, cerium alloyed iron-magnesium alloys. Only one percent of this element increases one and a half times the creep strength and the strength of the alloy at the gap. Cerium increases the electrical conductivity and refines grain copper alloys, titanium, aluminum, structural steel. Small additions of cerium to purify the steel of sulfur and harmful gas impurities. Alloying of steel normalizes GOST 12364−84. Cerium alloys are used more widely than lanthanum, which has a similar effect on structural materials, but significantly more expensive. By fusion with zinc cerium explodes.
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