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Terbium — (Tb) — light gray, silvery metal of the 65th element in the periodic table. Atomic mass is about 160. It is a rare earth element from a number of lanthanides. Like other rare earth elements in the native form is not found, scattered in the earth’s crust to 4.5 g/t In the middle the XIX century Swedish chemists managed to get oxide of terbium ions by decomposition. And in the beginning of XX century in France produced pure terbium. Industrially today is separated from the ore concentrate recovery metallothermic way.
It’s metal but a little heavier than iron. Under normal conditions, the density of terbium 8.3 g/cm3. The temperature of its melting point of 1356 °C, t° boiling point 3227 °C. up To 1287 °C this metal has an alpha structure and a hexagonal lattice, and at higher temperatures — cubic lattice. Under pressure 1ГПа grille can purchase a trigonal structure. Under normal conditions the metal is fairly stable. In boiling water, it forms hydroxide Tb (OH)3. Easily soluble in mineral acids. Calcining of salts of terbium in air at t° 1000 °C get oxide Tb4O7. The most stable trivalent terbium. Tetravalent terbium is part of hetero-prisoedinenii.
|Physical quality Tb|
|Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||160|
|The melting temperature t°C||1356°C|
|The degree of oxidation||4, 3|
|The thermal conductivity K [W/(m·K)]||11.1 V|
|Molar volume cm3/mol||19,2|
The production of phosphors, lasers, thermoelectric and magnetic alloys, magnetostrictive materials, semiconductor computer components. Thanks to special technology and performance, samarium widely used modern electrical engineering and mechanical engineering. Using such materials of new generation have the opportunity to improve technological processes of production and ensure more reliable operation of the whole complex of equipment. An alloy of terbium and iron is considered today the best magnetostrictive material used in the manufacture of powerful servomotors (for example, telescopes), as well as ultrasonic transducers for naval sonar. To relatively new compounds include terbium titanate, having a huge magnetostriction.
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