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Europium (Eu) — light silver color is a soft metal, the 63rd element in the periodic table. Atomic mass — about 152. It is a rare earth element from a number of lanthanides. Like other rare earth elements in the native form is not found, scattered in the earth’s crust to 0.2 g/t. Among the lanthanides, it is one of the most expensive: depending on the degree of purity of the metal 1 kg. is from 900 to 2000 dollars. Selected from a mixture of rare earth elements in the late nineteenth century, named after Europe. Industrially, this metal is produced by the reduction in vacuum oxide Eu2O3 with carbon or lanthanum or by electrolysis of the melt EuCl3.
It is a very light metal. Its density is 5.24 g/cm3. He easily handled the pressure, rolled, bent, cut, drilled, milled. Melting point 826 °C, t° boil 1597 °C, At 1,8°K europium becomes superconducting properties. In the air it is covered with the oxide film. Valence +2; +3. A high-level push from europium salt solutions of almost all metals. Keep it in a jar with kerosene or liquid paraffin.
|Physical quality Eu|
|Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||152|
|The degree of oxidation||3, 2|
|The melting temperature t°C||826°C|
|The heat of fusion kJ/mol||n/a|
|The thermal conductivity K [W/(m·K)]||13,9|
|Heat of evaporation kJ/mol||178|
Thanks to special technology and performance, europium is widely used modern metallurgy and nuclear energy. Using such materials of new generation have the opportunity to improve technological processes of production and to ensure long term reliable operation of the whole complex of equipment. In nuclear reactors the derivatives of europium are neutron absorbers (hexaboride, borates, oxides). With halogen-free europium forms a light-sensitive derivatives. A radioactive isotope 154 europium can be used as nuclear fuel. Eu2O3 used in thermochemical splitting of water. Europium ions generate radiation with a wavelength of 0.6 µm in the orange part of the spectrum, it serves as a basis for the creation of powerful lasers.
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