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Gallium is the 31st element in the periodic system D. I. Mendeleev, where indicated by the symbol Ga. It is ductile and malleable silvery metal with a bluish tint. Named Paul Epilim by Lecoq de Boardroom in honor of his homeland — Gaul. Alloys of this metal as rolled sheet and long products. The price for 1 kg gallium of more than 1400 dollars.
The chemical activity of solid gallium is similar to aluminum. From oxidation both of the metal protected by the surface oxide film. But gallium is more active chemical element. It reacts with hot water and superheated steam forms a hydroxide. Gallium actively interacts with mineral acids at temperatures below room with the formation of salts and releasing hydrogen. This metal does not react with nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon, silicon and bromine.
Gallium can have a number of polymorphic modifications, but they are not stable in ordinary conditions. The proportion of gallium under normal conditions of 5.9 g/cm3. Liquid gallium is more heavy, almost has a density of 6.1 g/cm3. That is, during solidification, the volume of gallium, as ice increases. Melting point of 29.8°C, t° boiling point = 2230 °C. That is, the gallium is in liquid state within wide temperature range — more than 2200 °C. It also has minimum vapour pressure at 1100−1200°C. In the solid and liquid specific electrical resistivity of not changing.
Gallium is not only a great lubricant, based on it is also created by metal clay. Despite the wide temperature interval in which the gallium is in a liquid state, use it as coolant, is not justified. He is very aggressive to most metals and alloys. Gallium arsenide is a promising semiconductor. With his help create LEDs and lasers for blue and UV range.
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