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Praseodymium (Pr) — light silver color plastic metal with a greenish tint, 59-th element of the periodic table. Atomic mass — about 141. It is a rare earth element from a number of lanthanides. Like other rare earth elements in the native form is not found, scattered in the earth’s crust to 9 g/t In the air slowly oxidized under normal conditions. Opened in the late nineteenth century, when the Austrian scientists were able to divide the rare earth element Didim, previously considered indivisible metal, praseodymium and neodymium. The word praseodymium has Greek roots, translated as «green twin». Industrially it is produced from a mixture. of rare earth elements extraction and chromatographic separation with a neodymium. Then praseodymium is allocated metallothermic method or by electrolysis at a temperature of 850 °C. the Principal reserves of this metal are concentrated in the United States, Russia, China.
In the air slowly oxidized under normal conditions, but when heated it burns with formation of a mixture of 3-and 4-valent oxides. Calcining in the atmosphere of hydrogen or methane receive the trivalent oxide. In an oxygen atmosphere under increased pressure ortueta tetravalent dioxide.
|Physical quality Pr|
|Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||141|
|The melting temperature t°C||903,8°C|
|The degree of oxidation||4, 3|
|The thermal conductivity K [W/(m·K)]||12,5|
|The heat of fusion kJ/mol||11,3|
The production of powerful permanent magnets and thermal lasers with a wavelength of about 1 micron. Thanks to special technology and performance, praseodymium widely used modern metallurgy and electrical engineering. Using such materials of new generation have the opportunity to improve technological processes of production and ensure more reliable operation of the whole complex of equipment. Praseodymium is also used in the glass industry. Its oxide gives the glass a green tint. This metal is used for alloying of steel, production of special ceramics. Derivatives of praseodymium and tellurium are used for optimization of thermo-EMF and the strength of the thermoelectric alloys of rare earth elements. The alloy of this metal with germanium and silicon gives a superconducting material. In vacuum technology, the praseodymium is used to manufacture cathodes and magnetic cores. Salts of praseodymium allow to regulate the process of nuclear magnetic resonance.
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