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What is a thermocouple? These are two dissimilar conductors connected by a common end (hot junction) used to measure temperature. The conductors are protected by heat-resistant pipes, which protect them from chemical or mechanical damage. The operating principle of the thermocouple is as follows. As the temperature rises, a potential difference arises between the heterogeneous conductors. The thermoelectric effect depends entirely on the difference in the heating temperature of the hot junction and the cold ends of the thermocouple. If you set the error factor depending on the type of thermocouple, you can get the measured temperature data to within a degree. The thermocouple has found wide application in metallurgical equipment as a temperature sensor for thermal furnaces, as well as in all kinds of industrial heating installations.
They are necessary to reduce the error in the transmission of the signal from the thermocouple to the receiving device, if the distance from the measuring point is more than one meter. They have a distinctive identification color — the positive conductor is colored red. Care must be taken to observe the polarity when connecting, otherwise inaccuracies in measurement errors.
Wire for thermocouples is made according to the requirements of GOST for various types and classes of sensors. Alloys such as alumel, chromel, rhenium, etc. can be used. TEPS values from one certified skein are the same over the entire length, and pieces of different wire coils may have significant differences. To obtain the most accurate readings, take homogeneous thermoelectrodes. If homogeneity is in doubt, the necessary measures are taken to eliminate it.
The measuring range of thermocouples is limited by the melting point of the alloy from which it is made. Among the main advantages of thermocouples, one should note a small inertia. This is the ability to measure insignificant temperature changes. The measurement of high temperatures in an aggressive environment is possible only with protective covers.
To increase the accuracy of the thermocouple, a type is chosen that works in the desired temperature range. With sufficient distance from the measurement object, large-diameter compensation wires are used. To increase the efficiency of measurements, it is desirable not to allow mechanical tension of the thermocouple conductors, as well as vibrations in the place of cold end connections. Due to the length of the cold ends and their isolation from the measurement object, the temperature gradient is reduced along the entire length. When working with an aggressive environment, special cases are used to protect the thermocouple conductors. For more accurate measurements, a scheme for continuous electronic monitoring of the resistance of thermoelectrodes is provided.
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