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Erbium (Er) — soft light grey, silvery metal of the 68th element in the periodic table. Atomic mass — about 167. It is a rare earth element from a number of lanthanides. Like other rare earth elements in the native form is not found, scattered in the earth’s crust up to 3.5 g/t was opened in the middle the XIX century Swedish chemists managed to isolate that element from the minerals «arnieboy of the earth.» When arabatka breed he is removed together with other heavy lanthanides. Industrially produced by electrolysis of molten chloride salts.
This is one of the heavy lanthanides, its specific weight more than 9 g/cm3. under normal conditions it has a hexagonal structure. Melting point 1522 °C, t° boiling point of 2510 °C. This is one of chemically active metals, has a valence of +3. Easily oxidized with oxygen and Halogens.
|Physical quality Er|
|Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||167|
|Density [g/cm3]||Was 9.06|
|The melting temperature t°C||1522°C|
|The degree of oxidation||3|
|The thermal conductivity K [W/(m·K)]||14,5|
|Molar volume cm3/mol||18,4|
Erbium the most in demand in nuclear power, laser and fiber optics. It activates the phosphorus in the manufacture of magnetic ferrites and iron-alloy cobaltinitrite. Thanks to special technology and performance, europium is widely used in modern industry. Using such materials of new generation have the opportunity to improve technological processes of production and ensure more reliable operation of the whole complex of equipment. Oxide and erbium borate in a mixture with uranium oxide significantly optimizes, increases the safety of the reactors. Erbium is introduced into the composition absorbing thermal neutrons the rods of nuclear boilers. In the manufacture of fiber optics in quartz, the melt is added the oxide of erbium. For powerful laser emitters have also applied the crystals of the oxide. He is part of special ceramics and phosphors,. The salts of erbium are relevant for melting colored glass and glass with large coefficient of absorption of thermal radiation. Colorimetric analysis of impurities erbium normalized GOST 23862.22−79.
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