Corrosion cracking and fracture of steel
Stress corrosion cracking is a serious problem. This type of corrosion occurs when steel is under tensile stress in a corrosive environment, most commonly in sea water at elevated temperature. This stretching can be the consequence of workload, or the presence of residual stresses in design fabrication by cold deformation. The tensile stresses decrease with annealing (normalization).
Factors of stress corrosion cracking
This type of corrosion is typical for austenitic stainless steels and depends on the percentage of Nickel. Tokorrozionnoe cracking restricts the use of stainless steel in aquatic environment, especially in salt water at t° > 50 °C, and the use of stainless steel in the oil and gas industry where materials in contact with liquids, and gases rich in hydrogen sulfide, such as sour gas. Accelerate corrosion of the tensile stresses and salt ions. Very high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide will even slow corrosion. With increasing temperature and aggressive influence of salts increases, and the influence of sulphur, on the contrary, decreases due to the increased ion mobility in the crystal lattice. Temperature of 60−100°C for corrosion-fatigue fracture of steel is critical.
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