The discovery of magnesium is associated with geothermal sources in England. There at the end of the XVII century from the water began to evaporate salt with a bitter taste and laxative effect. The apothecaries called it Epsom salts. Pure magnesium was isolated only in the early twentieth century. The richest deposits of magnesium are in the North of the USA, Russia, f Scandinavia and China. Brucite and magnesite contain up to 40% Mg and keseric, epsomite, dolomite to 17%. Magnesium salts are readily soluble. Almost 0.13% of the Mg contained in the oceans. Magnesite brought to the surface geothermal water, which precipitates when the temperature drops. Dolomite deposits also coexist with thermal springs. The majority of deposits of magnesium were formed by sedimentary, their reserves are not inexhaustible.
Technical magnesium produced by the electrolysis of molten mixture of chlorides of potassium, magnesium and sodium. After the initial allocation of necessary additional cleaning. Electrolytic refining is used in a mixture with special fluxes. Chemically pure magnesium is obtained by sublimation in vacuum. Refined magnesium has impurities not more than 0.001%. Another thermal method of producing magnesium provides for the recovery of magnesium oxide by silicon or coke when heated. Silicon excrete magnesium from dolomite. Price of 1 kg of magnesium ingot is about $ 3.
It’s hardly the lightest structural metal. Its specific weight in normal conditions is = 1.7 g/cm3, t° melting point 651 °C, and boiling the metal at 1103 °C, Its surface protected by the oxide film, which at 623 °C is destroyed, then the magnesium flashes. Magnesium shavings ignite with a match and burns not only on air, but in carbon dioxide. Magnesium flash until the early twentieth century had no alternatives at photo shoots. This property of magnesium is easy to ignite is lighting rockets, tracer bullets, incendiary bombs. A mixture of magnesium powder and potassium permanganate — explosive.
Mg easily soluble in acids with formation of salts with hydrogen evolution. It is easily subject to corrosion in salt water with the formation of hydroxide. Resistant to alcohols (except methyl), kerosene, gasoline, freon and oils. He refers to the energetic reducing agents. Magnesium powder easily displaces the less active elements from compounds. It easily recovers other metals that are used for obtaining titanium. When heated, it accepts oxygen from oxides and alkalis.
Mg well-rolled, punched, bent, easily drilled and cut. This is one of the most high-tech metals. However, pure magnesium is quite brittle, the more valuable its alloys as structural material. The majority of its alloys are lightweight, strong and corrosion-resistant materials. Rental produce magnesium alloys with aluminum, zinc, titanium, manganese, beryllium. These alloys get bestlolitas melting under the protection of inert atmosphere. They have the broadest field of use.
Magnesium is part of the most relevant structural materials. Alloy of aluminum and magnesium — an inexpensive lightweight, durable and technologically advanced alloy, which is especially important in the automotive and aviation industry where these qualities facilitate weight design that gives a valuable advantage when developing new models. Magnesium rental demand for the production of parts fairings, landing gear, ailerons, doors, levers, housings of pumps, fuel tanks. Thanks to the increasing weight, reduces fuel consumption and increases the efficiency of the motor. In the automotive industry are elements of automobile crankcase, shock absorbers, plastic molding, decorative items, covers tanks, magnesium rims for the wheels. The instrument is the body parts and instruments, cameras, mobile phones, cameras. Magnesium alloys are relevant in the manufacture of batteries. Mg and its salts (bromide and perchlorate) give a very high capacity batteries and a large discharge voltage. In the near future there will be a magnesium-sulfur battery, which has yet to undergo laboratory improvement. With a narrow capture cross section for thermal neutrons and minimal interaction with uranium magnesium alloys were used in the production of fuel rod cladding. Magnesium perchlorate is also used for deep drying of gases. Magnesium oxide is included in the composition of refractory materials for the special lining of industrial furnaces.
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