Features and application of stainless steel
Stainless steel because of its exceptional advantages has taken a leading place among structural materials. in modern life. It makes everything — from pots and Cutlery to exclusive equipment in medicine, chemical and nuclear industries. It should be noted that it is very hygienic quality. Stainless steel has no effect on drinking water. In the presence in water of chlorides or bromides to 200 mg/l it is necessary to use stainless steel containing molybdenum. If we compare stainless steel and copper alloys or galvanized iron, then it has a higher potential in the electrochemical series. Stainless steel does not affect the taste of the products, therefore, received the most widespread in the food industry. On a smooth high quality stainless steel surface does not breed bacteria, fungi, and bacteria.
Features of the structure
When using the remarkable properties of stainless steels, and take into account the fact that during processing they are very different from ordinary carbon alloys. This can be explained by the peculiarities of their metastable austenitic structure which has a number of differences. In ordinary carbon («black») steels is usually achieved stable structure of the alloy. With the introduction of chrome steel it is possible to achieve such qualities as chemical resistance and heat resistance. The presence of chromium in the steel provides high resistance to oxidation. If chromium is greater than 12%, is formed on the surface a thin film of oxides that protects the steel from corrosion.
Steel Х18Н9 (ЭЯ1)
This brand is considered the most common. It contains 0,005−0,15% C, 8−11% Ni and 18% Cr. Its tensile strength is 80 kg/mm2, in Cowan, it austenitic or austenitic-carbide structure, it has elongation up to 20% and impact resistance to 10 KGM/cm2. After annealing 1050−1150°C With cooling in water or air, the tensile strength is reduced to 60 kg/mm2… Despite this, the elongation increases to 45−50% and significantly increases the impact resistance. Tempering gives the austenitic steel is non-magnetic structure. Reheating austenitic steel Х18Н9 to a temperature above 600 °C, and cold mechanical processing can give a partial decomposition of austenite. In addition, the steel acquires magnetic properties. Reheating can cause the allocation of chromium carbides, they do makrolidami nearby area of the metal and therefore not very resistant to corrosion.
To intergranular corrosion of steel results in the release of carbides in the grain boundary. If the steel struck deep corrosion, it becomes very fragile, can break at the bend and they lose the familiar metallic sound when struck. Thus, it is possible to explain and «knife» corrosion near welds. If you want to prevent the tendency to intercrystalline corrosion in steel add a bit of titanium and niobium. In the formation of more stable carbides TiC, NbC, data elements, link the carbon and all chromium remains in the solution due to this is eliminated intergranular corrosion.
A big plus is the high resistance of all grades of stainless steel to the action of organic acids, weak mineral acids, and particularly nitric acid. But these steels can dissolve sulfuric or hydrochloric acid. There is a very strong brand. These include purely austenitic chromium-Nickel steel, which are usually produced in the form of rental. It 12X18H10T (AISI 321), 08H18N10, and 12X17 (AISI 430).
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