Production of stainless steel
Stainless steel is one of the most popular materials of the XXI century. Its production — a complex technological process is carried out in three ways. Distinguish between open-hearth and oxygen-Converter and electric steel-melting method.
The open-hearth method
Metal smelting is in special furnaces, the swinging or stationary. Melting lasts 4−6 hours, but during the melting process is the ability to accurately control the quality of the metal with repeated samples. In open-hearth furnaces receive special steels, thanks to the addition of the required admixtures. The open-hearth method is quite expensive. So the last time, he gradually begin to decline.
The oxygen-Converter method
Technology is the following. The vessel is pear-shaped load cast iron and the charge. The mixture was purged supplied under pressure from the bottom up oxygen. For processing 1 ton of cast iron required 350 cubic meters of oxygen. This method does not use the fuel. Under the action of the oxygen mixture in the Converter is heated to the melting temperature. Excess carbon in the iron is oxidized and is carried with the stream of furnace gases. This method is by far the most common. It is more economical, but because of the rapidity of poorly controlled. Distinguish between oxygen-Converter process with the combination, the upper and lower poddubki. Converter-based production of stainless steel combined poddavki is considered the most versatile.
The electric arc method
Steel is smelted in special electric furnaces. This method involves the use of electricity to heat the iron. In the smelting process produced slag. The quality of steel depends on the composition of slag and its quantity. The slag acts as a transmitter of heat and oxygen, but also removes from became unnecessary harmful substances. As a result of using an electric melting method produced steel of the highest quality.
This is one of the most important stages in the production of stainless steel and sheet metal. It is in the cooling process are fixed essential properties of the metal. Therefore, high-quality stainless steel is obtained only when cooling is done correctly. The cooling of the billets is carried out while moving on the roller conveyors, conveyors and Slippers. Earlier cooling technology used in the mills of the old design — cooling in stacks or on slabs shop. Cooling in stacks are called samotyshka. The disadvantages of it is the decrease of ultimate strength and yield strength of steel.
The surface of stainless steel should be smooth, without any scratches or unevenness. Brushed steel different metallic luster, and matte steel has a barely noticeable metallic luster. Edges should be smooth, without bumps and burrs.
Must be efficiently processed. In order that the seam had the same corrosion properties as stainless steel, it is required to be processed after welding by grinding, etching and passivation. All welding work is carried out with the help of special welding equipment in argon, whereby the seam is of higher quality. After welding is done Stripping and polishing with abrasive materials. After that the product becomes marketable.
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