Nickel and Nickel-based alloys
To Nickel alloys include those in which the Nickel content is not less than 55%. They are highly resistant against chemical and electrochemical, intergranular corrosion. Depending on the scope of application of these alloys are divided into two groups. 1) Nickel, copper-Nickel and Nickel alloys that are processed by pressure and which serve the manufacture of various products in instrumentation and mechanical engineering in accordance with GOST 492. 2) Wrought Nickel alloys for operation at high temperatures and in corrosive environments according to GOST 5632. The first group includes alloys for thermocouples and vacuum technology, as well as a rheostat alloys (for items of the electrical resistance). In addition, this group represented the brand pure Nickel, which are used in machinery and instrumentation, as well as for electrolytic plating. In the second group okolnostima (heat resistant), heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant alloys. This includes nichrome, which are used as material for the heating electric resistance elements.
Brand Nickel alloys have letter designations of the constituent elements except Nickel. Instead of Nickel indicated figures which reflect the average percentage. Nickel alloys, which are obtained by special methods, represent the additional letters at the end of the name brand by a dash: vacuum induction melting — VI, vacuum-arc remelting — V. D. Khim. the composition of the domestic brands of Nickel alloys does not always coincide with similar foreign brands. This is due to the scarcity of the number of alloying elements in other.
Nickel alloys containing additives manganese (manganese Nickel) used in gastronic rectifiers for holders of systems and electrodes for incandescent lamps. Alloys are alumel and chromel has become very popular as the material for thermocouples. With their help, we can accurately measure the temperature in a large interval in oxidizing environments (up to t° 1200−1300°C), i.e. in industrial processes. For rheostats used alloys of Nickel and copper (Copel, Constantan). In such alloys with a Nickel content of 40−50%, and the resistivity does not change with temperature change.
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