The application of hafnium
Supplements spectrumco, glass, control rods of nuclear reactors. Alloy W-Hf-Ta is the best for fuel delivery in gas-phase nuclear engines. One of the most refractory materials is HfC with a melting point of 3890 °C. This alloy is indispensable in the construction of nuclear boilers gas-phase,
Due to the heat resistance and the high degree of refraction of the hafnium used in the manufacture of multilayer x-ray astronomical mirrors, strands of fiber optics.
Low work function of electrons (3,53 eV) allows the hafnium cathodes of the electron gun, vacuum tubes and thermionic efficient generators.
Heat resistance, minimal electron work function makes it possible to use Hf in the manufacture of electrodes for welding in argon, in the atmosphere of carbon dioxide. Note the high economic effect of the use of alloy Ta-Hf electrodes for air-plasma and oxygen-flame cutting of metals.
Hafnium improves the corrosion resistance, strengthens the weld seam and improves the weldability. Supplement 1% Hf to aluminum gives a light and very strong material with a grain size of 40−50 nm. The boride and hafnium carbide with the melting point of 3250 °C is used as highly wear-resistant coating. Alloy 80% TAS, and 20% HfC is considered the most heat-resistant alloy with t° melting 4216 °C.
Titanium doped with hafnium are used in the manufacture of marine engines. The addition of Hf to the tantalum dramatically increases the resistance to oxidation as a result alloys for the rocket industry (gas nozzle, rudders).
Hafnium in the alloy with elements such as terbium, samarium — are the basis for heavy duty permanent magnets. Alloys with scandium is used in microelectronics in order to obtain resistive films with exceptional properties.
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