Brazing of titanium and titanium alloys
On the surface of Titan is so-called alteromonas layer, saturated with atmospheric gases. Before soldering this layer should be removed by sand blasting or by etching in a solution of HNO3 (20−20 ml) and Hcl (30−40ml) into 1 gallon of water. The time of etching is 5 to 10 min at 20 °C. After this treatment still remains an oxide thin film on the titanium surface, which prevents wetting of the surface with solder. Generally, brazing of titanium and titanium alloys is carried out in argon or vacuum, thoroughly cleaned from impurities of nitrogen, water vapor and oxygen. In this regard, brazing titanium is carried out usually at a temperature from 800 to 900 °C. This provides a rapid cleaning of the surface a good wetting of his solders. At higher temperatures, the brazing of titanium alloys is carried out rarely, because prolonged heating above 900 °C there is a tendency to increase the grain and deteriorate the plastic properties. Reduces the ductility of the metal is in the hydrogen. Hydrogen is removed during the soldering process or when heated to t° 900 °C in vacuum at a pressure of 0.01 PA. In this regard, brazing titanium in a vacuum rather than in a neutral atmosphere.
Choosing solder, method and mode of soldering, remember that titanium is able to form in the soldered seam of brittle intermetallic compounds with all elements that are included in the solders. Therefore, for the base of the solder is often used silver. It forms with titanium intermetallic compounds with the lowest fragility.
Soldering of titanium, tin-lead, etc. low-temperature solder is rarely used. In this case, before soldering the titanium is coated with Nickel plated or chemically. To increase the adhesion of Nickel and titanium parts heated to t° 250 °C for one hour. Then solder the same flux and solder, as for pure Nickel. Brazing titanium and its alloys using low-temperature solders is also possible after pre-coating with silver, copper or tin. To cover the tin, the product is prepared for soldering, it is quickly immersed in heated to t° 700 °C the tin for 10−20 minutes. With the help of the flux, which includes stannous chloride, also can be plated titanium with tin.
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