Calculation of nichrome and nichrome alloys
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Chromium is highly soluble in Nickel. The maximum is 47% at the eutectic temperature and falls to 30% at room temperature. Based on this solid solution has developed a number of industrial used Nickel-chromium alloys (nichromes). Such Nickel-chromium alloys possess excellent resistance to high temperature oxidation and corrosion and good wear resistance.
The percentage of
The introduction of small amounts of vенее 7% Cr in the Nickel increases the sensitivity of CR-Ni alloy to oxidation. This is because the diffusion rate of oxygen increases. This trend changed after the increase of the share of chrome above 7% Cr, and increased up to the level of adding approximately 30%. Nicrmov resistance to oxidation can be improved by adding small quantities of other elements such as zirconium, silicon, cerium, calcium or similar. While on the surface of the nichrome alloys formed a mixture of oxides of Nickel and chromium (NiO and Cr2 O3). They combine to form Nickel chromite (NiCr2 O4), which has a structure of the spinel type.
Practical use of nichrome
The group of alloys used in the manufacture of heating elements. A marked increase in the resistivity is observed by increasing the proportion of chromium. 20% chromium is considered to be optimum for the electrical conductors of the resistance, built-in heating elements. This composition combines good electrical properties with good strength and ductility, making it suitable for wire drawing.
Binary alloy 90/10 Ni/Cr is also used for heating elements, and has a maximum operating temperature of 1100 ° C. Another application of this alloy are thermocouples. 90/10 Nickel — chromium alloy used in thermocouples, in combination with the alloy Ni/Al 95/5. This combination is called chromel-alumel, and has a maximum operating temperature of 1100 ° C. Further, the stability is affected by the starting surface oxidation. However, the addition of silicon overcomes this disadvantage. These brands of nicrmov as nikasil (containing 14% Cr and 1.5% Si) and nisil (containing 4.5% of Si, and 0.1% Mg) preserve its corrosion resistance at temperatures up to 1250…13000 C. high temperature corrosion-resistant alloy containing 80% Nickel and 20% chromium is also used for forged and cast parts used at high temperature.
Mechanical properties of nichrome
|The content of chromium, %||The tensile strength of the alloy, MPa||Elongation, %|
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