Welding of titanium and titanium alloys
Titanium at a relatively low density of 4.5 g/cm3 has high strength (from 267 to 337 MPa) in the temperature range 400−550°C, high resistance to fatigue, resistance to corrosion and action of many corrosive media. Titanium alloy with chromium, aluminum, manganese, tin, vanadium, etc. have much more strength (1000−1400 MPa) with a significant ductility and are used extensively in shipbuilding, machine building, rocket and aircraft engineering, chemical machine building, instrument making, and also in various industries as a structural material. Titanium has low thermal conductivity, so that the seams joining, which are obtained in the process of welding in argon, have a characteristic cone shape with deep penetration. In some designs it is necessary at the edges of the main seam (dumbbell type) the imposition of additional sutures or a wider seam welding in the environment of helium.
The main methods of welding titanium and titanium alloys
· Arc submerged arc;
· arc consumable and non-consumable electrode in inert gases;
· electron beam;
Arc welding under protection of inert gases
Runs antoninovna or utrirovannye non-consumable tungsten electrode (automatic or manual welding) and consumable electrode (automatic or semi-automatic welding). Used for welding high-purity helium or argon, or a mixture thereof.
Welding tungsten electrode
It is by far the most popular. Is carried out in air using standard equipment TIG automatic welding with direct current straight-polarity non-consumable electrode.
Arc welding submerged arc
Titanium and titanium alloys are welded without oxygen submerged ANT-1, 3. The thickness of the metal is 2.5−8 mm, and for sheet of greater thickness is used the ANT-7. Before welding, the flux is calcined at a temperature from 200 to 400 °C to decrease in this percentage of moisture to 0.05% by weight. Such welding is carried out on conventional equipment with direct current reverse polarity.
This method connects the titanium or titanium alloy with a thickness of 8−12 mm are used plate electrodes of the same composition as the base metal and of a width equal to the thickness of the part during welding.
Electron beam welding
This connection method titanium alloy gives a fine-grained structure of the weld and reliable protection against gas corrosion. Such welding is used for metal thickness up to 160 mm. In some cases, in order to prevent delamination and then, welding is used with horizontal placement of the beam.
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