Production and General information about lead
Alloys are lead-based are classified as high-alloyed and low-alloyed. The latter group includes alloys which contain minor amounts of additives Cu, Fe, Sb, Cd, CA or Sn, in those concentrations that do not reduce, and sometimes increases the corrosion resistance and significantly increase long-term strength and the creep strength. In the high alloy group, consist of alloys containing large quantities of elements that increase the hardness, friction properties, strength, reducing the melting temperature of lead, as well as its shrinkage during casting.
The lead and many of its alloys, except those containing more than 0.1% Mg, Ca, K, Na or Li, have high corrosion high resistance to water, air and most diluted inorganic acids at low and room temperatures. Lead alloys resistant to concentrated acetic, Chloroacetic, and citric acid. In the presence of oxygen the resistance of the lead alloys in organic acids is reduced. Chlorine (at a temperature up to 100°C), sulphur dioxide and hydrogen sulphide, lead alloys have little impact.
Low lead alloys are resistant to moisture, which contains salts of carbonic, sulphuric and silicic acids.
Of all the elements used for alloying lead only Te and Ca affect the hardening during plastic deformation. Alloyed other elements lead, because of the low recrystallization temperature capable of softening at pressing, rolling, drawing, etc. processing methods that are carried out at room temperature. Greatly increase long-term strength, creep strength, resistance to sulfuric acid and the recrystallization temperature of the additive of tellurium. With the introduction of 0.05% Te loss of lead in sulfuric acid is reduced ten times.
Lead alloys with Cu (0,04−0,08%), Te (0,03−0,06%) and Sb (0,5−2,0%) used in the manufacture of pipes, sheets and other semi-finished products intended for lining baths, pipelines and similar acid-resistant equipment. Alloys doped Ca (0,03−0,07%), Te (0,04−0,06%), Sb (0,4−0,8%), Sn (1,0−2,0%).shells are used for power and low voltage cables. Fusible double, triple lead alloys differ most complex eutectic composition with Sn, In, Bi, Cd, Hg and Sb. For corrosion protection of iron alloys before pouring bearings use special tinning, which are the alloys of lead, alloyed with 0.5 — 1% Sn or Zn.
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