The history of Nickel alloys
Nickel has the property of dissolving other metals, he does not lose his merits, giving alloys heat resistance and plasticity. Due to this property, a large number of Nickel alloys, which have a number of advantages. Nickel forms with other metals solid solutions, which are ferromagnetism, high corrosion resistance in gas and liquid aggressive environments. In the alloys do not exist allotropical transformation.
Since the late nineteenth century, has become an increasingly popular Nickel-copper alloy with high plasticity, valuable electrical properties and resistance to corrosion. The alloy type Monel has found the widest practical application. Such alloys, together with menyalami stand out among the structural materials of high chemical resistance to water, gases, strong alkalis and acids.
Ferromagnetic alloys (40−85% Ni + Fe) play an important role in technology. These alloys belong to the class of soft magnetic materials. Among them are alloys, which are characterized by a high value of magnetic permeability is permalloy; constancy, qualities under changing external conditions — perminvar; high magnetic permeability and maximum magnetic saturation of perinorm. Such alloys are widely used in almost all fields of technology, where need high sensitivity work items to the fluctuations of the magnetic field.
Alloys with 45−55% Ni in demand in hermetic contact between the glass and the metal. These alloys doped with co or Cu, with glass have practically the same coefficient of linear thermal expansion.
Alloys of Ni + Withthat have 4 or 18% Nickel belong to the group of magnetostrictive materials. These alloys possess high corrosion resistance in sea and river water. As a rule, they are widely used for the manufacture of hydroacoustic equipment.
With the advent of the twentieth century and the development of electrical engineering has developed a new class of Nickel alloys. The heat resistance of this metal in the air very high, but it can improve Cr, Si, Al. Nickel alloys are Si, Al, Mn and Ni alloy with 10% Cr have heat resistance in combination with thermoelectric properties. The most common thermocouples are chromel-alyuminevye thermocouples, they are used in laboratory technology, and industry. Also used thermocouples of chromel and Copel.
Alloy Ni Cr c, also called nichrome. These alloys are heat resistant and are widely used in the art. But still very popular nichrome with a Nickel content of about 80%. They were considered the most heat-resistant industrial alloys, but only until gromala. To reduce the cost of nichrome began to reduce the content of Nickel, thus, there was ferrochrome. In ferrochrome large part of the Nickel is replaced by iron. The most common composition contains 60% Ni, 15% Cr, 25% Fe.
Compared to nichrome ferrochrome have less operational stability and are used at lower temperatures. It should be noted that nichrome and ferrochrome have a very high electrical resistance of approximately 1.05 and 1.4 μω·mm2/m. Along with chromosme they are the most important classes of alloys, which are used to manufacture high temperature electrical heaters. As a rule, use nichrome, which is alloyed with silicon to about 1.5%, together with such metals as rare earth and alkaline earth. Limit the operating temperature of Narumov of this type is 1200 °C and some grades up to 1250 °C. Competition nichrome sostavljajut heat-resistant alloys, which contain 15−30% Cr and 4% Al. Alloys doped Si not as heat resistant. But from chromium-containing alloys, doped with aluminum is much more difficult to obtain homogeneous composition of the tape or wire for reliable operation of the heaters was. Because of this, such alloys are mostly in the manufacture of heat-resistant parts with a permissible operating temperature up to 1250 °C, not exposed to high mechanical loads.
During the 2nd world war in the UK began production of Nimonic — heat-resistant alloys Ni — Cr — Ti — Al. These alloys are high strength obtained by alloying of chromium and 2.5% titanium and 1.2% aluminium. These alloys are superior to nichrome and alloy steels for heat resistance. Prior to that used steel, workable up to a temperature of 750−800°C. the Appearance of Nimonic opened the era of aviation gas turbine engines. Within a short time composed a large number of complex-alloyed alloys, which are Nimonic. It alloys with Ti, Al, Nb, Ce, La, V, Zr. Their operating temperature reaches 1000 °C Adversely affects the quality of the alloys is complicated by the alloying impairs the ability of the alloy to hot working pressure. It must be noted that the alloy wrought and cast alloys, has gained recognition thanks to the high heat resistance. But cast alloys do not differ very homogeneous structure, in connection with which there is a scatter of properties. To search for the optimal composition of the alloys was introduced refractory oxides of thorium, zirconium and aluminum, and other compounds. Best turned Nickel alloy with finely dispersed oxides of thorium.
A very important role in the technique of play doped alloys Ni — Mn, Ni — Cr, Ni — Mo. These alloys have useful electrical properties: high electrical resistance, small coefficient of thermal expansion, and paired with copper have a low value of thermal EMF. These alloys manganin yield the largest coefficient of thermal resistivity in the range of room temperatures, but are 3−4 times larger electrical resistivity. Such alloys are used for small resistive elements, which require constant electrical properties throughout the service life. These elements are made of thin foil or micro wire with a thickness of 5 to 20 microns. For the production of small strain gages use the alloys Ni — Cr or Ni — Mo. In such alloys is a linear dependence of the electrical resistance on the magnitude of elastic deformation.
Chemical equipment often operates in harsh environments sulfuric and hydrochloric, and phosphoric acids of different concentrations at a temperature that is as close to the boiling point. Alloys Ni — Cr — Mo, Ni — Mo abroad known as hasteloy and remanit. In the USSR these alloys are known under the brands H70M28, Х15Н65М16, Н70М28Ф, Х15Н55М16 V. These alloys for corrosion resistance are superior to all known steel.
In practice, many more of Nickel alloys with Fe, and Mo, and Cr, and other elements that have the desired combination of mechanical and physico-chemical properties. Thus, gain corrosion-resistant alloys for springs and hard alloys for stamps, and many others. In addition to these alloys, the Nickel enters into the composition of other metals as a component.
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