Titanium in chemical and petrochemical industry
Among other branches of national economy one of the main consumers of titanium is industrial chemistry. In terms of consumption of titanium alloys it shares the leading position with the aerospace industry. Not news that one of the main problems in the chemical industry is to protect from corrosion. Together with the advancement of technology and continuous growth of productivity, and also increase the costs of protection of the equipment from corrosion and its replacement in case of breakage. The most effective solution of such issues today is the use of new corrosion-resistant materials.
Advantages of titanium alloys
Alloys of titanium can effectively replace alternative materials such as:
1. Nickel alloys (Hastelloy «b» and «C»);
2. High alloy steel, such Х23Н28МДЗТ;
3. Stainless steel type 18CR10NITI;
4. Rare and precious metals;
5. Nonferrous metals (tantalum, platinum, tin, niobium, copper);
Comparative analysis of metals and alloys that are used in modern chemical equipment, showed that the titanium alloys provide maximum reduction of operational costs and increase the reliability of work. The opportunity to facilitate and improve the designs. Eliminated time-consuming and costly work on the lining. The only drawback are the large-scale investments required for installation of equipment of titanium.
First use of equipment made of titanium showed that it is a valuable structural material for the manufacture of the main equipment of chemical and petrochemical industry. In 1954 the company «Titanium metals Corporation of America» was first used Titan for lining mixer, who has worked in an atmosphere of chlorine dioxide, which was subjected to rapid corrosion. In many countries the equipment is made of titanium, for example in Bulgaria, the UK, Germany, Italy, Romania, USA, France, Japan, etc.
There are a number of industries where the use of titanium is virtually no alternative. This:
1. Chlorine, chlorine dioxide and chlorine. acid;
3 Potassium, chloride, and chlorate of potassium;
6. Of manganese;
7. Ammonium perchlorate;
8. Calcium hypochlorite;
10. Herbicides 2,4-D;
12. The oxychloride of copper;
13. Ammonium chloride;
16. Potassium chlorate;
17. Glauber’s salt;
19. Nitric and sulfuric acid;
20. Polychlorinate acid;
23. Organic glass;
24. Nitrosyl chloride, and melamine;
25. 2−3-dechlorination, 1,4-proximity melamine;
26. Paranitroaniline, neozone D isatine, chromolaena;
27. Optical bleaching agents, polyethylene, and acetaldehyde;
28. Synthetic rubber (chloropropanol, izoprenovogo);
29. Liquid tiokol, viscose fiber, caprolactam;
30. Vinyl acetate;
31. Epoxy resin;
32. Pharmaceuticals such as: (Gallic acid, tincture of iodine, extracts of thyme, Digoin-neo, water pepper, tannin, breast elixir, solution for injection).
Today there are more than 600 industrial facilities in which the well-studied chemical resistance of titanium. In spite of this, when using the new technologies being tested for corrosion, since in the chemical industry compositions are usually multi-component. Therefore, even minor additives of any substance, can in the roots to change the corrosion behavior of titanium. Solutions of mineral acids or oxidants supplements have on the Titan inhibitory effect. Has been proven that parts of titanium does not corrode for eight years in an environment containing sulfuric acid to 200 g/l. where there is a salt of copper, Nickel, iron, at a temperature of about 80 °C. Here’s an example: a pump made of titanium can work at the company on the transfer of 20% sulfuric acid at temperatures up to 90 °C, and a year later the corrosion will «eat» only 5 mm. Such pumps are employed in production for quite a long time in solutions with 5 to 15% hydrochloric acid containing an admixture of ferric chloride and magnesium.
Titanium is very resistant to corrosion in wet chlorine and chlorine derivatives, which can cause corrosion and ulcer corrosion cracking and in organic compounds containing oxygen, chlorine, and in solutions of most of the chlorides. That’s why titanium is so widely used in chemical industry for manufacturing of equipment. However, there were anomalous phenomena, when in practice, the titanium resisted corrosion in a solution of chlorine and chlorides. Corrosion often occurs in places where there are cracks, gaps and cracks, very often it is in those places where are connected the collector and the electrolytic cell. To avoid such troubles it is rational to build the equipment, in order to reduce the risk of corrosion to a minimum.
In contact with other metals
Titan to become the cathode, thereby in aggressive environments increases the corrosion of another metal that has contact with him. Here is an example. Stainless steel 18CR10NITI or Х17ГШМ2Т plus brass or bronze. Often, such corrosion has ulcerative character, its development depends on area of contact.
The most frequently among commercially manufactured brand used alloy VT1−0. This brand has the best quality anti-corrosion at operating temperatures up to 350 °C. is Also actively used alloy at-3, which was developed in IMET USSR Academy of Sciences I. I. Kornilov with employees. In most cases, this alloy has higher corrosion resistance than other alloys (including VT1−0). Also this alloy has a higher anti-friction properties. It is frequently recommended for use in environments containing acid — formic, sulfuric, hydrochloric, phosphoric, even at the boiling point. This alloy also has corrosion resistance in the so-called reducing media having an alkaline reaction. He performed well when replacing the alloys based on Nickel, platinum and gold. After researching the properties of alloys such as 4200 and 4201 and their industrial tests, they are recommended for use in the production of the tetrachloride and amino acids.
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